The Briton will start in prime position in the grid on Sunday, despite Valtteri Bottas having been fastest in Q1 and Q2 on Saturday.
Hamilton qualified first with a time of 1 minute and 24.303 seconds, while Bottas ended up qualifying second – 0.313 seconds behind his Mercedes team-mate.
Red Bull’s Max Verstappen was 1.022 seconds behind Hamilton in third, while Ferrari’s Charles Leclerc finished qualifying in fourth place.
Briton Lando Norris of McLaren qualified fifth, with Racing Point’s Lance Stroll behind him in sixth. Norris’ team-mate Carlos Sainz qualified in seventh.
Daniel Ricciardo of Renault finished in eighth ahead of team-mate Esteban Ocon, while Sebastian Vettel was more than two seconds off Hamilton’s pace, all the way down in 10th.
Hamilton has six British Grand Prix wins to his name – more than any other driver in the race’s history. He was first on the podium at last year’s edition of the event.
The 35-year-old has already secured two GP victories this season, winning in Austria and Hungary after claiming pole position for both races.