The Reds saw their hopes of an unbeaten Premier League season go up in smoke at the Etihad Stadium as Sergio Aguero and Leroy Sane scored either side of a Roberto Firmino header to decide a truly enthralling contest.
While victory in Manchester would have seen Jurgen Klopp's side extend their lead over the reigning champions to 10 points, they were forced to settle with a four-point cushion at the summit at full-time.
But that won't result in a loss of belief among the Liverpool squad, according to Henderson, who believes he and his teammates simply came out on the wrong end of fine margins against Pep Guardiola's men.
“There is no need to get carried away. All season we have taken it game by game and we will do that again," he said.
"It is normal to be disappointed by a defeat. Now it is about reaction and I am sure the lads will react in the right way. Why would you lose confidence after a game like tonight? It could have been different.
Premier League round-up: Man City inflict first league defeat on Liverpool
"The Premier League is a tough league, the games keep coming. We need to be ready and we will be."
According to goal-line technology, Liverpool came within 1.12cm of taking the lead in the first half when John Stones somehow cleared off the line after almost forcing Ederson into an own goal.
That chance came seconds after Sadio Mane had hit the post following a well-worked move and illustrated the Reds' lack of good fortune on the night, Henderson believes.
He added: “In terms of the result we are disappointed. We were beaten by a very good City team but there were still moments in the game where we could have scored one or two more. We just have to accept the defeat.
“We created chances – a big one in the first half and a few in the second – and things could have been different with a little bit of luck. That is how football is sometimes. We have to move quickly. It is all about the reaction now and we have to react in the next game.
“I am confident we can bounce back. There were moments in the game where we had the momentum, but unfortunately we got done with the second goal. Overall we must keep our heads high. The lads have been brilliant all season and need to take it forward.
“I felt second half we stayed in the game and there were periods we were keeping it around their box but City are a good side and they are always going to create chances. With a little bit of luck it is different, especially with the first half chance. If that goes over the line it can change the game. But it never so we have to bounce back.
“I am sure it was a great game for neutrals, two good teams going at it. Tactically it was a good game – very intense. We both had our moments and they have nicked it. Overall we are disappointed because we thought we could get something."